EARLY TESLA MODEL S GUIDE
Why? When I decided to buy a used Tesla, I spent a ton of time sorting through forums and reviews, trying to understand features and options, what years these options were available, what issues I might find, along with a basic understanding of what to expect from a non-combustion car. Despite always working on my vehicles, these cars are unique, so this was all very foriegn to me. Tesla changes things and there isn’t exactly a company-driven database for the consumer. This page gathers up what I learned…
* as of Spring 2021, truly-autonomous Full Self-Drive is still not possible, but the package does offer many other capabilities.
I found a private seller with a very well-maintained 2013 Model S 85 with under 48,000miles. The car included the Tech Package (pretty much a must-have when looking at cars built before April 2015) with parking sensors, Smart Air Suspension (SAS), Panoramic Roof, performance seating (which I believe means it has contrasting piping and is less likely to show wear due to the Alcantara bolsters), the 19” Cyclone wheels (standard on 85 cars) had been replaced at some point by the staggered 21” Arachnids with fresh tires on the rear set, and still had nine months of the battery/drive warranty. This second owner, who had bought it used from Tesla, had receipts of the drive unit being replaced in Dec 2020 with the latest -Q iteration along with an alignment. Surprisingly, the Free Unlimited Supercharging and Free Unlimited Premium Connectivity stuck with it. He let it go for $28,000, which I felt was at least $3000 under fair market value. I found that at a certain point, say half the MSRP, their market value tends to drop $3000 a year. So, if you find that most Model S cars of a certain year are priced around $30k, expect to pay roughly $36k for a Model S that is two years newer with the same autonomy level unlocks.
Early Model 3 vs Earlier Model S
Private Sellers vs Dealers
One of the issues some people have with Tesla, is the way the company allegedly treats old contracts, changes agreements, or amends their policies. For instance, Free Unlimited Supercharging (FUSC) is something the earlier vehicles could be optioned with (all 85 series vehicles came with FUSC standard) and has been historically transferable. However, there are instances where buyers of used cars claim this feature was removed after transfer of ownership - if not simply a matter of people confused about their car’s history, which I believe is almost always the case. With a Telsa, such features can be shut off remotely, though I’ve not come across an occurrence of anything major. Again, I think a lot of the problems here involve confused buyers not being diligent in their research, which admittedly, is pretty difficult. Well, aside from them shutting down the ability to even pay for Supercharging on people that have rebuilt Teslas - this is true and seems to be done in an attempt to get these cars off the road because it can become a real hassle if the owners travel. I'm not a big fan of some of Tesla's business practices, but every manufacturer has a checkered history.
One of the shady practices of Tesla’s is the CPO enabling every used vehicle that comes through their doors to its maximum autonomy of the car’s included hardware. This is great for the budget buyer looking for a deal on a car with those capabilities, but it also instantly raises the value of a 2017+ trade-in that they have received as a standard-optioned vehicle by $10,000 with a mere keystroke. Furthermore, this upgrade is linked to the owner (understand that Unlimited Supercharging is linked to the car), so they can do this over and over on the same car until every Tesla owner has paid for Full Self-Drive. To me, this practice seems like a great way for Tesla to cover the cost of Premium Connectivity for everyone that buys a vehicle from the Certified Pre-Owned inventory, yet still turn a profit. The downside is, don’t expect to go to the CPO and find a deal on a non-unlocked car you plan to upgrade later as funds become available.
Secondly, insurance prices tend to be high due to Tesla’s parts manufacturing. Prices for these run very high because you can’t just buy a part of an assembly, you have to buy the whole unit. This causes a good number of Teslas to be totalled out where most common cars wouldn’t. For example, the cabin air filter on a Model X is at least 1ft by 3ft. However, this paper filter is permanently glued into a massive plastic frame. You can’t just purchase the paper element alone, you have to purchase the entire $500 assembly. eBay has a large and lucrative parts market for Teslas due to this very reason. On the bright side, I played with my Progressive quotes and found that when I renew after one year of ownership, my premium should go down about 25%.
Free Unlimited Premium Connectivity (lifetime) &
Regarding the Model S, X, and 3 Performance fine print, the Tesla site currently states that any [Supercharge-capable] S, 3, or X ordered before July 2018 received lifetime Free Unlimited Premium Connectivity (FUPC) and that any Tesla ordered July 1 or later, did not get this perk. Understand that FUPC was originally linked to the vehicle, not the owner: because, according to this mid-2018 change, it is implied here that an owner could not move his FUPC into a new 2019 vehicle, Standard Connectivity only includes Navigation, where Premium includes everything else, including live traffic, satellite maps, and music streaming. As of January 2020, orders through Tesla CPO come with a thirty day trial period of Premium Connectivity. After the trial period, Premium Connectivity will be a subscription of $10 a month.
Historically, FUPC has always transferred with the vehicle between private sellers until the death of the car. Unfortunately, the Feb 2021 fine print states that FUPC may be removed once the car receives “retrofits or upgrades required for any features or service externally supplied to the vehicle - e.g. telecommunications network.” I figured this relates to the upgrade from the MCU1 to MCU2 (see below), since it upgrades the Infotainment from 3G to LTE. But according to a Dec 2020 forum post by TeslaTap, "all the 3G cars have lifetime connectivity, which remains even with the LTE upgrade." ...the grey areas. I did call a Tesla Service rep in Feb 2021, who stated that the MCU2 upgrade should not affect my FUPC and that the procedure usually takes less than four hours.
The previous owner of my car showed me that Free Unlimited Supercharging (FUSC) was on his Tesla CPO order sheet (I saw that he paid $40,400 for the 2013 S85 in July 2019 with 18,000 miles). Unfortunately, the policy on FUSC is confusing because there currently isn’t a detailed FAQ regarding its transfer on their site like the FUPC. It gets convoluted, but according to what I gathered, all vehicles ordered up until Jan 2017, were equipped with FUSC which was linked to the vehicle until its death. For orders after this deadline (though I’ve read stories of owners getting it beyond this due to reconciliation for delivery delays), owners were given FUSC for as long as they personally owned that particular vehicle. Somehow, mine made it through the Tesla Certified Pre-Owned system in 2019 with FUSC intact. So, maybe the 2017 policy change applies to new vehicle orders only, rather than the CPO vehicles that already had it? Apparently, up and through 2016, you could continue to add FUSC as an upgrade to any 40 or 60 Model S for $2500, no matter when you bought it. Currently, you can only get free Supercharging through new car incentives or referrals, but these are generally limited to a thousand miles and/or a year in duration.
According to one owner, his Tesla Account stated this in October 2018, under Supercharging: "You have free, unlimited Supercharging for your current Tesla vehicle...If you choose to sell your current Tesla, free Supercharging will transfer to the next owner. In addition, up to five friends you refer will also receive free Supercharging. Read our Supercharging terms." No chance of confusion there.
Verifying Premium Connectivity & Free Supercharging
You can only do this next method once ownership has been transferred within Tesla’s database, otherwise you would have to ask the current owner to show you their account. Log in to the Tesla Account website (not the app) on a computer, find the vehicle and click “Manage,” then click on “Details.” This appears to show the Specs and Upgrades of the original order since mine still shows the 19” Cyclone wheels. However, it lists No Driver Assistance (twice, for some reason) and No Ludicrous under Specs, both of which didn’t even exist until July 2015. My Car Details are indicating that I have FUSC and FUPC in the Specs section - strangely, it also shows FUPC in the Upgrades section. Knowing that my FUSC definitely transferred, I am thinking that you want to see these in the Specs portion for the greatest chance of transferability. Also to note, this window very oddly does not show the Tech Package or Smart Air Suspension for my vehicle.
There are two other ways to check if the car has Free Unlimited Supercharging (FUSC). One way is to get in the car and click on the lightning bolt at the top left of the Infotainment screen. In the bottom right of this battery level window, you will see the “Supercharging” heading. If it says “No Recent Supercharging,” that is a good sign - mine said this before and after transfer of ownership. If instead says "Paid Supercharging" or shows a dollar amount (even $0.00), then it does not have FUSC. The second, and most for-sure way to find out, is to go to a Supercharger station and plug it in. A few days after transfer of ownership, I still had no credit card info attached to my account, but drove to the closest Tesla Supercharger station, and simply plugged it in. I had no idea what I was supposed to do, but it immediately started pulling 33kW without any prompting! Mine continues to show “No Recent Supercharging” and FUSC does not bother to display last location within the car- it can be accessed through the Tesla website.
Transfer of Ownership in Tesla’s Database
The Tech Package
Smart Air Suspension
The panoramic sunroof can make a noise, that sounds like a dull rattle just above the rear view mirror. It can be constant or intermittent. To resolve this, open the sunroof and look for the black, metal tab at the front of the glass - it will be directly above the center console. Get some cloth tape, and wrap this tab to reduce the noise caused by it tapping against the front of the sunroof frame when closed.
Drive Unit Issues
General Things To Look For
Another common cosmetic issue is that the front bumper frames can rust. This rust will then drip and find its way out from behind the fog lamp area and streak across the fascia. It seems Tesla was unable to fully paint the insides of these metal structures and some owners, like me, noticed rusty streaks after washing the car. It doesn't happen after every wash, though. I've read of some vehicles getting this corrected through Tesla, but that option has probably expired. I haven't tried, but removing the front fascia and sealing these areas off is probably the best option. Just don't freak out when you see the rust streaking across your paint for the first time.
One major item to look for is coolant leaks. There is a coupling at the front of the battery frame. The car essentially splits into two pieces: the passenger body that lifts off of the battery chassis. There is an electrical and a coolant connection up front that link the two halves together. The two o-rings of the coolant connections can become damaged during assembly, or just begin to leak after several years. Also, if the car took an impact to the undercarriage, it could leak elsewhere. Take a look under the car, checking the entire area between the front and rear wheels. Run your hands along the bottom of the car, under the doors. Any signs of a drip or wetness? These repairs require the body to be lifted from the chassis, so are not fixable in 99.9% of consumer garages.
Make sure all the door handles present and all the exterior and interior lights turn on. You may see dead bugs in the tail lights, but this is common. My front speakers were blown, due to the foam surrounds rotting away - they sounded like the frame was rattling against the door during lower frequencies (this is sometimes referred to as "farting"). Be sure to check the EQ on the Infotainment because turning the low frequencies down can mask this. I bought an interior panel remove kit to access the speakers and was able to repair the surrounds with glue that I had purchased to replace the dust covers on my bass cabinet speakers. All I did was hold the speaker up to a light and use the glue to mend any separation I saw between the paper cones and the foam surrounds - any missing surround can be left open since it's the cracks that cause the issue. Surprisingly, this is working fine until I am ready to upgrade. Do not just use any glue you have lying around, order actual speaker glue.
How many remote key fobs are there? I believe they came with two during original purchase. I dropped one of my fobs after about a week of ownership, and it started to eat through batteries within 24hrs. These will cost at least $85 from third parties (though they seem authentic) and Tesla sells them for the Model 3 and Y for $150. I could not locate a Model S or X fob in the Tesla Shop, but the forums mention they cost $235 through the Tesla service centers. The third party vendors indicate that the ones they sell should function across all vehicle models, though. Otherwise, the app will work just fine except that the car will not passively unlock nor will the door handles auto-present unless there is a key fob nearby.* Passive unlock means the car will unlock when the fob comes within three feet of the vehicle, at which point it will also present the door handles.
* I have seen owners state that the older fobs for the Model 3 did not have passive unlock capability, but the newer ones do. So there may be some difference in the fobs.
Don't be surprised if panel fitment isn't precise. I have a piece of chrome trim on the rear window that doesn't exactly flow to the front window trim as I'd like. I have found this is not entirely uncommon in brand new Teslas* and I noticed my friend's new Model Y had a larger gap between the hatch and the left tail light than the right when we picked it up. I guess this requires quite a bit of work to adjust and I am not sure she ever bothered taking it up with Tesla. The lower part of the front doors on her Model Y also looked off, but comparing it to others on the lot, they all had this same appearance - it did not appear to be an assembly flaw and may have something to do with how the vehicle pulls the door in to shut it. I imagine fitment issues are best resolved when mentioned during new deliveries, and doubt they will fix these problems for free on one that is out of warranty. Just keep this all in mind.
* I suspect this might have a little to do with Tesla trying to meet production goals: even if someone notices a minor issue like panel fitment during assembly, they may keep it moving down the line to let the service centers deal with it later, just to keep up with new vehicle orders. Not the best practice, but they have deadlines ...that they sometimes fail to meet.
Degradation is a complex problem and there are many factors that affect battery life. But it seems heat is the biggest culprit concerning EV (electric vehicle) battery failures. The Nissan Leaf was the first vehicle to show this issue, with Arizona cars experiencing abnormally high degradation rates. Those Leafs rely on a passive cooling system to reduce battery temperatures, whereas, even the earliest Teslas incorporate an active liquid thermal management system for the battery. This system is designed to cool the battery even when the car is parked. Newer Teslas (2018+) have focused on improving battery cooling measures further, especially during harder/aggressive driving and Supercharging. These improvements help make these new batteries capable of handling V3 Supercharging at 250kW with minimal effect on the battery's expected life. There are actually a multitude of unexpected protocols in the software to protect the battery. For instance, at very low temperature, the battery can degrade if being charged. So, in colder weather, the car limits the regenerative braking to avoid damaging the battery.
The next most problematic factors are charge cycles and depth of discharge. A charging cycle basically refers to a full charge from 1%-100%, so it would take many small charges to equal one charge cycle. Obviously, higher mile cars have a higher number of theoretical charge cycles, so there's not a lot you can do about that. However, keep in mind that the benefit of a larger battery capacity of a Tesla, compared to a Leaf, means there are less required charge cycles for the same mileage. Depth of discharge (DOD) is how much you deplete the battery before plugging it back in. Obviously, the further you go, the more battery you use up. Not only does depleting your battery down to lower levels increase battery degradation from DOD, but now you are using almost a full charge cycle to bring that back up ...you can see how these two factors play a role together.
* This seems most important in cooler climates or short drives to a Supercharger. From my understanding, this is to give the vehicle a chance to warm the battery to 70*F which prevents [battery crystallization]. As of now, I don't believe there is any way to manually initiate the battery conditioning for a non-Tesla DC fast charging station outside of Navigation.
Personally, I set my top-out at 85-90% of the total capacity. The previous owner did so and it seems that my Oct 2013 had less than 5% degradation when I purchased it in Feb 2021, which is phenomenal by most accounts. Several eight year studies have shown that 2012-2013 Tesla Model S batteries are showing, on average, well within 10% battery degradation. At a 10% loss, that equates to the range of a Model S 85 dropping from 265miles to 238miles - a 26mile loss isn't much when you have a larger battery. This is an impressive statistic, especially when you think back to the passive-cooling Leaf, where some cars in very hot climates were exhibiting 20% degradation in only a few years - a drop from a 73mile range to 58miles.
State of charge (SoC) is how full the battery currently is. The least stressful SoC for a battery pack is 50%, and the closer to 0% and 100% it gets, the more stressful the SoC. Also, the longer it sits at the ends of the spectrum, the more stress the battery continues to endure. Tesla Service Centers seem to recommend a 90% state of charge limit as this might be the best compromise between battery health and range readiness. If range isn't a concern, maintaining a charge between 40% and 60% is likely the most desirable state.
Another factor that is rumored to reduce battery degradation is limiting the amount of DC fast charging the car receives, especially to 100%. This includes Tesla Superchargers and any other public high amperage chargers provided by third parties. According to independent research by Electrek in 2020 on Tesla data through 2017, the average Tesla owner sees about 5% degradation in 100,000miles. Oddly, they found that the 90kWh batteries seemed to degrade faster than the 85kWh packs. At the time of the study, Electrek had access to a Model X 90D used in the Tesloop (Tesla's one-way rental program in California) that had a battery failure at 317,000miles in 2018, but was showing signs of 10.5% degradation at almost 100,000miles on the two year old replacement 90kWh pack. Electrek suspected this Model X's accelerated degradation was linked to the new chemistry being used in the 90kWh packs, but also worsened by the likelihood of numerous DC fast charging to 100%.
The rate a Supercharger will replenish a battery is dependent on several factors, including temperature. But the main factor seems to be the vehicle's state of charge (SoC), or how depleted the battery is. The 120kW-rated Superchargers should recharge an empty Model S 85 in about 75mins. Some models, like the Model Y Performance can draw larger pulls off the 250kW-rated Superchargers and refill in half the time - maximum draws are dependent on the vehicle's hardware and software. My second SC experience, I had a SoC of 53% and was pulling about 34kW (equating to about 111mi/hr for my battery). One day later, I decided to hook up at a Supercharger with about 45% left, and the car was receiving 65kW (219mi/hr) until it reached 50% when it dropped to 33kW (111mi/hr). So, don't expect to recharge 50miles in 15minutes if the battery is at 75%. On my fourth trip to the SC, I had a SoC of about 26% (65miles left) and was initially getting 72 kW (250mi/hr) - I recharged back to 200miles in about 40mins, with it tapering to 37kW at that point. The Supercharger tapering-off is another counter-measure to prevent battery degradation.
When traveling long distances and Supercharging is required, the Tesla will generally advise to only charge long enough to get to the next SC rather than topping-off to 100%. This is for two reasons, with one being that filling a battery to the max can cause unnecessary stress to the pack. But the primary reason is that as the pack closes-in on 100%, the charge speed is greatly reduced to prevent damage. With this dramatic speed drop, it therefore becomes far more efficient to leap frog to the next Supercharger where the lower state of charge will allow a larger amperage pull. With this method, the car can recover the most miles in the shortest span of time. The software may calculate that it is more efficient to do two twenty minute chargers along the route than a single forty minute charge. If the computer plots a course that has you always approaching the next SC at 20% battery, this will reduce the amount of time you're sitting at a charging station to a minimum.
Another factor that dictates the charge rate is the number of vehicles sharing a power source at the charging stations. Stalls have an assigned number with a letter - the letters are the branches coming off an individual power source. You want your own numerical source for maximum charge, so choose a stall of a different number than the one(s) already being used. Also, choosing a letter branch with a car that is at least 80% full means they won't be using as much of that source (because their kW pull will be tapering off), leaving more for you. It would be nice if the Infotainment could tell us where to park for best performance, instead of asking and/or trying them out. Be weary that there is an idle fee if the sits in an SC with a topped-off battery for more than five minutes, but this only occurs when half the stalls are being used. You can log into your online Tesla account, then click on the history tab to get a rundown of your Supercharging kW usage via the monthly invoices.
For incredibly detailed information regarding Superchargers, check out this entry on TeslaTap.
Important note: Supercharging was not a standard feature on early Model S cars with batteries smaller than 70kWh, so be very mindful when purchasing one from the first few years. However, some 60 series cars had the $2000 optional hardware installed. The original Roadster does not have this ability either, but all other Tesla vehicles do. Not having DC fast-charging would make road trips extremely time consuming, if not downright impossible. Personally, I would avoid cars without this capability.
* the safe output from any home outlet into a continuous load is 80% of its rating, so 50 x 0.8 = 40.
Tesla currently offers the Gen 2 Mobile Connector Bundle and the Gen 2 Corded Mobile Connector. In true Tesla fashion, you're forced to do extensive research outside of the Tesla Shop for exact differences. The standard equipment Gen 2 Mobile Connector (MC) is the cheaper and more versatile of the two. It includes the storage bag, the 20' cable, and a NEMA 5-15 dongle. The dongle can be swapped out for different outlets, so you can buy a few and be prepared for anything. However, unlike the Gen 1, this charger is limited to 32amps (4kW/hr). This equals about 23miles/hour even when connected to a NEMA 14-50 outlet, while the NEMA 5-15 still provides 3-4miles/hour to the Model S. To add confusion, sometimes the non-corded Mobile Chargers are referred to as the Universal Mobile Charger (UMC).
The Gen 2 Corded Mobile Connector (CMC) is almost twice the price of the usually sold out Gen 2 Mobile Connector above. "Corded" means there is no changeable dongle, as the NEMA 14-50 plug is hardwired directly to the unit. However, you could buy a third-party adapter to plug into something else. The benefit of this model is that it will allow a full draw of 40amps to the vehicle, just like the Gen 1 model. It only comes with a storage bag to keep it organized while on the go.
The Tesla Wall Connector is a stationary home charger that is hardwired to a home's circuit panel. The unit can be installed inside or outside and is eligible for a tax credit. The downside is that it cannot be taken with you. It is about the same price as the Gen 2 Corded Connector, but it can deliver up to 48A through the 18' cable. The 48A equates to a charge rate of 34miles/hour on all Model S vehicles, and up to 44miles/hour on certain Performance and Long Range models. The onboard charger inside the car, which converts the AC from the outlet into DC for storage in the battery, is one of the limiting factors here. The Standard Range Model 3 and Y models come with an onboard charger that does not have the power handling of the onboard charger inside the Model S, Model X, Performance, and Long Range vehicles (7.7kW vs 11.5kW+). This means the max amps the Standard vehicles can pull from the Wall Charger will be 32A (4kW/hr), which is the equivalent of the Gen 2 Mobile Connector. Model S cars made between 2012 and April 2016 are limited to 40A, while remaining non-Standard vehicles can pull up to 48A. Also to note is that there was an early, short-lived option to purchase a second onboard charger that would max the AC pull to 72A on a Model X or 80A on a Model S.
Regarding charge rates, it seems that you may see a drop in amperage throughout the charging process, as is the case when Supercharging. From my understanding, the onboard charger will charge the battery quicker in the beginning of the cycle, then reduce amperage as it nears the top-off point. This is definitely true when recharging the battery to 100% and is another protocol Tesla utilizes to extend battery life.
Understanding Charge Rates Between Models
Camber and Tire Destruction
I started considering purchasing adjustable camber links since the stock ones are solid from mount to mount. Then I found an entry on Edmunds in Sept 2013 (yes, 2013; *facepalm*), claiming the issue with their test car was not the correctly-set negative camber (as most cars they test in this class also have similar camber), but the out-of-spec toe of the rear tires. The rear toe is adjustable with the stock linkage, but it uses an eccentric cam where the bolt had apparently loosened or bumped out of position. If the rear end wiggles out of factory spec (which is toe-in) and settles into a toe-out situation, the high torque will quickly scrub the inside of the tires off when combined with this camber, as it did in their 2013 Model S. So the true solution doesn’t appear to be adjustable camber links, rather aftermarket toe links that eliminate the suspected eccentric cams. Some owners have instead gone the route of finding service shops that offer lifetime alignments. Go here to learn how to check your Model S’s toe at home.
MCU System Upgrade
In Jan 2021, Tesla began offering owners of older cars containing the MCU1 the option to retrofit the MCU2 into their cars for a reduced price of $1500 (previously $2500). Not so coincidentally, this offer comes around the same time Tesla was ordered to recall and replace the original 8MB eMMC contained inside the MCU1 units. This multimedia chip is soldered onto a daughter board and is at risk of overfilling and crashing from all the software updates. The new flash chip increases capacity to 32MB. You can either get the free eMMC swap or pay for the MCU2 retrofit with the updated flash memory - in my opinion, if you need the eMMC upgrade, you should probably get a further discount on the MCU2 upgrade since the unit will be out anyways. I spoke to a service rep that stated the MCU2 upgrade should have a day-of turnaround.
The way to confirm which MCU you have is to open the main menu on the Infotainment by clicking the car icon in the bottom left. Now click "Software" at the bottom left of this list, and then "Additional Vehicle Information." If it says "NVIDIA Tegra" in the processor field, then this is the MCU1 unit. The MCU2 uses the Intel Atom CPU.
Software Not Updating
Resetting may also help, especially if the app fails to connect. Just hold the two scroll buttons on the steering wheel until the Infotainment screen turns black, then wait for it to reboot on its own. Here's info on the different methods to reboot a Tesla.
Brake Pad Failure
AutoPilot, Enhanced AutoPilot, and Full Self-Drive
In October 2020, Tesla released the beta for completely autonomous Full Self-Drive to only about a thousand users, and then another thousand in March 2021. Yes, it is confusing since the 2016 packages have been called FSD and AutoPilot for years, but the cars haven't actually done what the FSD name implies ...and they technically still can't. In 2019, Musk promised that total FSD [for the masses] was going to happen within a year, then loosely blamed delays on government regulations (which seems to be unfounded). Some of the beta user's access was pulled when Tesla found they were using the tech without being prepared to provide intervention ...because some videos show that it is actually required and can be dangerous. The fact that the software is now being tested on a larger scale should quicken the release of the final version.
Chill, Sport, Insane, Ludicrous, Warp, Raven, & Plaid
Raven was the designation for the powertrain update in the 2019 Model S and Model X, which saw the replacement of the now-obsolete AC-induction motors with the more efficient permanent-magnet motors that had been introduced in the first Model 3 and Model Y vehicles. This also marked the year when the Model S and Model X no longer carried a number designation that indicated it's battery size (remained 100kWh). Rumor has it that the "Raven" name was inspired by Mystique, aka Raven Darkholme, from the X-Men properties.
The Model S Plaid, which is another Spaceballs reference, was announced in Sept 2020. The 2021 Model S saw its second refresh, most notably to the interior with a yoke-style steering wheel, horizontal Infotainment system, and a rear entertainment display. This was also the year that the Model S was outfitted with a Model Y-style heat pump instead of relying on a less effecient resistive heating system. Rather than Plaid being an unlockable software option like Ludicrous Mode, it became the designation for the Model S's performance model. The Model S Long Range retains dual motors while the Plaid and Plaid+ introduces Tesla's first tri-motor configuration. The Plaid+ also features a new "structural battery" design as it's power source. The structural battery, which increases rigidity, is essentially a honeycomb that the new 4680 battery cells are dropped in to. Performance-wise, the Plaids turn out more than 1000HP, run 0-to-60 in under 2.0 seconds, and are capable of 200mph. The Plaid+ also boasts an astounding range of 520 miles from a full charge (twice the range of my 2013 Model S 85) while also slightly outpowering the Plaid. The Plaid+ experienced a delay in 2021 with the new battery packs, and was pushed back to a 2022 release.
What I find to be most impressive about the 2021 Model S is it's price: in 2013, my single motor Model S 85 retailed for $92,500 with 19" wheels, but the basic 2021 Model S Long Range is light years ahead in every detail with a price of $80,000. Yes, it's still an absurd price to pay for a vehicle, but shows how quickly the technology is becoming cheaper to produce.
Most Desirable Model S On A Budget (...in the future)
CrankyGypsy (established 2001)